International Mother Language Day

In honor of International Mother Language Day—created to promote linguistic diversity and preservation—check out this beautiful and very detailed chart of the world’s languages. A lot of the data might surprise you!

It’s too big too fit here, but below is a little snapshot to give you an idea.

Here are some fun and colorful language infographics that do fit here!

The-100-Most-Spoken-Languages-in-the-World_Supplemental

As the name suggests, the massive Indo-European family includes every language from northern India through Iran and nearly all of Europe between Portugal and Russia (with Hungarian, Estonian, and Finnish being notable exceptions).

The language with the most speakers is, probably not surprisingly, English; about 15 percent of humanity can speak!

However, the vast majority of people who speak English learn it as a second language (as you might have noticed with the top infographic). Here are the languages with the most native speakers compared to second language (2L) speakers:

Here’s an interesting breakdown from the source:

Nearly 43% of the world’s population is bilingual, with the ability to switch between two languages with ease.

From the data, second language (L2) speakers can be calculated by looking at the difference between native and total speakers, as a proportion of the total. For example, 66% of English speakers learned it as a second language.

Swahili surprisingly has the highest ratio of L2 speakers to total speakers—although it only has 16 million native speakers, this shoots up to 98 million total speakers. Overall, 82% of Swahili speakers know it as a second language.

Swahili is listed as a national or official language in several African countries: Tanzania, Kenya, Uganda, and the Democratic Republic of Congo. It’s likely that the movement of people from rural areas into big cities in search of better economic opportunities, is what’s boosting the adoption of Swahili as a second language.

Indonesian is another similar example. With a 78% proportion of L2 speakers compared to total speakers, this variation on the Malay language has been used as the lingua franca across the islands for a long time. In contrast, only 17% of Mandarin speakers know it as a second language, perhaps because it is one of the most challenging languages to learn

Tragically, the U.N. has good reason to dedicate a day for the preservation of languages: The 100th most common language is “Sanaani Spoken Arabic”, spoken primarily in Yemen by around 11 million people. Yet there are a total of 7,111 languages still spoken today, meaning the vast majority of them—all but 100—have less than 11 million speakers.

In fact, approximately 3,000 all languages (40 percent) are at risk of being lost, or are already in the process of dying out today. (By one estimate, a language dies every two weeks.) Fortunately, growing awareness and advanced technology are helping to document and preserve these unique aspects of human existence, and all the unique ideas, stories, and concepts they each contain.

The Most Popular Second Languages in the World

So there is an app called Duolingo that is apparently one of the most popular language-learning services in the world. (I’ve heard of it but never knew much about it, let alone tried it.) With about 120 million users worldwide learning one of nineteen different languages, it seems to offer a pretty good sample size for determining which of the world’s languages are most popular to learn. That said, the company crunched numbers and discovered the following:

most-popular-duolingo

As is always the case with this sort of research, there are some caveats. As Quartz reports: Continue reading

Daily News Wire 7/28/2012

Lost In Translation

Earlier today I was reflecting on two articles,  one located hereconcerning publications in America and the woeful lack of international literature among them.

Only 2% to 5% of all books published in the United States come from a non-English language source. I always knew American society is insular with regards to international culture, but this low figure still surprised me. While some non-Anglophobe authors publish their works in English, most of them don’t, which leaves us completely unexposed to the overwhelming majority of  the world’s writings.

Imagine having no knowledge of most of humanity’s works – the different styles, stories, mythologies, wisdoms, and perspectives. It’s disheartening to think of all the knowledge I’m deprived of due to my geographic location (though I fault myself for not being as diligent with learning other languages). What of our society as a whole? The most powerful nation in the world, with a culture so ubiquitous across the globe, scarcely has any literary and academic contact with all but a handful of English-speaking countries. It’s a very one-sided affair for a country that almost singularly dominates the global media market. As the author of a book on the subject, Why Translation Matters, noted:

The free exchange of literary ideas, insights, and intuitions — a basic reciprocity of thought facilitated by the translation of works from other cultures — is central to a free society.

For all this, American publishers certainly bear some blame. They generally claim that translations would cost too much, and since most Americans aren’t interested in international literature, they’d lose a lot of money. But this raises a question of causality: is the lack of interest on the part of American readers the reason why publishers don’t bother translating and publishing such works? Or is it the lack of such publishing on part of the publishers leads to or facilitates of our disinterest?

Personally, I think it is a bit of both. Americans have always maintained a sense of entitlement and exceptionalism, and we view our society and its values as inherently superior, such that we have little inclination to look elsewhere for any other idea or alternative point of view. Why supply the viewpoints of another civilization if we don’t view them as worthy of our time? I’m not asserting that Americans are unique in this perception, or intentionally close-minded; isolationism simply has a strong and historical presence in our society (which is something best left to be discussed in another post).  While I wish publishers could be enlightened and illuminate us with world literature anyway, I know that is not their job, and the demand that beckons them simply isn’t there in any profitable degree (though this does inspire to someday found a publishing company geared specifically for this purpose).

To be clear, I’m well aware that I am coming from a bias towards cosmopolitanism and world culture. But even factoring that in, I think it’s safe to say that this deficiency of  world literature is a serious concern. Not only are we denied a variety of unique and enlightening perspectives, but we retain – if not worsen – a disconnection from the rest of the world we proclaim to be leading; a world we’re constantly involved in despite a considerable lack of understanding. From the article linked above:

The dearth of translated literature in the English-speaking world represents a new kind of iron curtain we have constructed around ourselves. We are choosing to block off access to the writing of a large and significant portion of the world, including movements and societies whose potentially dreadful political impact on us is made even more menacing by our general lack of familiarity with them. Our stubborn and willful ignorance could have — and arguably, already has had — dangerous consequences. The problem starts in the Anglophone publishing industry, where translated books are not only avoided but actively discouraged…

This will come to no surprise to long-established readers or friends of mine, but I’ve always held strongly to the notion that knowledge, dialogue, and empathy- as would be provided by transcultural literature – is a necessary prerequisite to peace, cooperation, and progress. If we expose ourselves to the cultural products of other countries and civilizations, we create a bond with them. We see their depth and their humanity, and we sympathize with them better. When we read and learn about the views, thoughts, and experiences of ‘foreigners,’ they become less alien to us and far easier to relate with. Jingoism, parochialism, and bigotry become eroded and marginalized.

It can be  argued that America’s status as the world’s foremost immigration hub does similarly create a diverse, dialectical, and progressive society. But other cultures generally become Americanized within a few generations, and American society is largely geared towards assimilation. Interactions with immigrants within our own cultural context is no substitute for delving into their deeper ideals and perceptions as provided by their media and literature. While our wonderfully multicultural society bridges many divides, it’s not as effective as connecting to other cultures on their own terms.

Feeling a connection with an author who’s subject matter or narrative is completely alien to you is a wonderful experience, for it breaches barriers in favor of transcendent human-wide values. It is the ability to transcend cultural, religious, ethnic, national, and  numerous other differences in order to establish a personal connection. It’s something I’ve had the joy of experiencing for years as both an international relations major and someone who simply enjoys other cultures. Being able to discover all that we share, in spite of what we don’t, is an enlightening, touching, and even sobering exercise.

To read of how other societies struggle with the same needs, ambitions, and conflicts brings us a closer to them and their interests, facilitating cooperation towards pursuing similar interests (for example, all societies are concerned about education, job growth, the erosion of moral values, and so on). Discovering alternative policies, explanations, and theories for various subjects  introduces us to solutions we may never have otherwise realized. There is literally a world of ideas out there that we’re completely oblivious to.

I am in no way claiming that reading stuff from around the world will usher in world peace and prosperity. My sole point  is that we would stand to benefit tremendously from reversing this entrenched cultural isolation. There is a lot beyond our borders that we’re completely missing out on. Even setting aside my bleeding-heart rhetoric on the matter, one can certainly argue that, at the very least, it would make for interesting reading.