Global STEM Leaders

STEM — short for science, technology, engineering, and mathematics — is all the rage these days, as economies across the world become more knowledge-based, and as humanity faces threats like climate change and resource depletion that will require creative, technological solutions.

That’s why so many nations, especially in the developing world, are trying to gain a competitive advantage by investing in STEM education and seeking to attract STEM graduates from abroad. According to Forbes, which cites a report from the World Economic Forum, these are the countries leading the way:

20170202_stem

Unsurprisingly, with their large and youthful populations, India and China have the most graduates overall at 78 million and 77.7 million, respectively. The U.S. is in third place with 67.4 million graduates, although the quality of its degrees may be greater than that of its competitors, whose education infrastructure is younger, less developed, and less prestigious (for now).

Japan’s high ranking is not surprising given that is a well established scientific and economic powerhouse, although its aging population and low rate of immigration likely explains why it doesn’t rank higher despite a population of 126 million. Russia, Iran, and Indonesia are rarely touted as academic leaders, but each is fairly populous — at 147 million, 75 million, and 260 million respectively — and Russia and Iran in particular have a long history of scientific achievement.

However, China may soon close this gap as it continues to improve its institutions and education standards:

Some estimates see the number of Chinese graduates aged between 25 and 34 rising 300 percent up to 2030 compared to just 30 percent in the U.S. and Europe. According to the World Economic Forum, STEM (science, technology, engineering and mathematics) has become a pretty big deal in China’s flourishing universities. In 2013, 40 percent of Chinese graduates finished a degree in STEM, over twice the share in American third level institutions

In an increasingly globalized world, the ability to draw and retain students and graduates from around the world will likely become a bigger consideration for more countries. For all the complexities of its visa and customs systems, the U.S. has long enjoyed an edge in this regard — for example, all six of its 2016 Nobel Prize winners were foreign-born.

But a wave of nativism and xenophobia may undercut its attractiveness as a research and academic hub, and other countries — including neighboring Canada — have begun to step up as alternative options, dangling such incentives as a path to citizenship upon graduation.

One thing is for certain. The future of a nation’s success and survival will depend on its command of technology and science. How it goes about advancing those intellectual resources is a different matter altogether. But any country’s increasing education is humanity’s gain.

 

 

 

Advertisements

What Students At Top U.S. Colleges Read

The Open Syllabus Project is recently launched database that has compiled more than a million course syllabi over the last fifteen years from colleges and universities across the English-speaking world (including Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and the U.K.). Among its findings regarding the top U.S. universities is the dominance of the works by Plato, Hobbes, Machiavelli, and Aristotle in required reading lists.

As Quartz reports:

In the U.S., Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley’s “Frankenstein” is the most taught work of fiction, with Chaucer’s “Canterbury Tales” a close second. In history titles, George Brown Tindall and David Emory Shi’s textbook, “America: A Narrative History”, is No. 1, with Anne Moody’s “Coming of Age in Mississippi”, a memoir about life as an African-American woman in Jim Crow America, at No. 2. “The Communist Manifesto” is the third most taught in history, and is the top title in sociology.

The project admits that its dataset is still a work in progress, as there is a margin of error for unusual or misspelled readings; moreover, it can rely only on whatever is publicly accessible from college websites.

Still, it is pretty much the only source for what the future academic and political elites of the Anglophone world are reading. The Open Syllabus Project allows users to search by country, state/province, institution, and academic field to see what tops a given reading list. Here is the overall list among all the curricula across all five major English speaking countries. (Note that the heavy leaning towards the humanities reflects the fact the reading lists for such courses are larger than in the hard sciences.)

screenshot-explorer opensyllabusproject org 2016-02-23 20-46-06

Source: The Open Syllabus Project

Seems like this would make a great individual reading list all on its own! Granted, it would be nice to see more prominent non-Western works — there is a wealth of interesting perspectives, philosophies, and narratives worth exploring, especially for the ostensibly best and brightest of future generations.

To learn more, visit the project page here.

The Countries That Support Free Speech The Most

This past spring, the Pew Research Center conducted a survey of over 40,000 people across 38 countries to find out how much they supported free expression, ranging from criticisms of the government to sexually explicit comments in public. The following map shows the results:

Here’s Vox’s take on the results:

People in Western countries, like America, Poland, and Spain, tend to be more supportive of free expression, while those in the eastern parts of the world — like China, India, Japan, and Turkey — are generally less supportive. And the U.S. stood out as more supportive of free expression than anyone else.

Still, the 38 countries surveyed by Pew were broadly supportive of free expression — with a few exceptions. For instance, a global median of about 52 percent of respondents said the media should not be able to publish information that’s sensitive to national security issues. And respondents outside the U.S. generally seemed to favor restrictions on specific types of speech, including that which may offend religious or minority groups

Overall, there was a clear divide between east and west on this issue, with the former less supportive of free speech than the latter (and African nations being somewhat in the middle ground). Nevertheless, most countries were generally pro-free speech, with respondents expressing hangs ups mostly towards sexually explicit content or anything that may be offensive to certain ethnic or religious minorities. This was the case even in the U.S., which is generally more comfortable with political speech than with anything sexual. Continue reading

Wikipedia’s Rival, And What It Teaches Us About Expanding Human Knowledge

As many of you know, I am a big fan of, and regular contributor to, Wikipedia. I love it as much for its immense breadth information as for its ambitious mission to help make the entirely of human knowledge accessible to all. But I also absolutely love another website with a similarly audacious goal; the only encyclopedia that actually gives Wikipedia a run for its money when it comes to being an accessible and reliable source: the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.

Spanning almost 1,500 entries, the SEP manages a respectable one million views a month, which as Quartz writer Nikhil Sonnad notes, is quite an achievement, “given how many entries there are with titles like Tibetan epistemology and philosophy of language or Peirce’s theory of signs.” According to the American Library Association, it is “comparable in scope, depth and authority” to the biggest philosophy encyclopedias in print. And did I mention that it is free?

Most crucially, the SEP has managed to accomplish the one thing that Wikipedia struggles with most of all: being a consistent and reliable source on all the topics it covers (although in fairness, Wikipedia spans a lot more pages and materials — close to five million in its English edition alone). Continue reading

Listen Freely to John Rawls’ Lectures on Modern Political Theory

One of history’s most cited and influential thinkers, American moral and political philosopher John Rawls is responsible for introducing some of the most seminal concepts in modern political theory. His many books and essays, in particular his magnum opus A Theory of Justice (1971), remain standard in many courses of political science and law.

While I do not have the time to highlight the many Rawlsian ideas that have deeply impacted me — namely public reason and the veil of ignorance — I invite you to learn more for yourself by checking out these full lectures made freely available by the Harvard Philosophy Department via Open Culture. 

In these talks, Rawls explains and expands on his core principles: equality of opportunity and the “difference principle”, which states that any and all inequality should benefit the least well-off members of a society. Rawls’ brand of political liberalism (also a title of one of his books) has influenced presidents, judges, and legislators with arguments directly contrary to some of the right’s ideological architects, many of whom in fact wrote in reaction to Rawls. We are free to accept his claims or not, but Rawls’ significant contribution to the terms of modern political discourse is inarguable.

See them here or get them all here. These lectures are well worth your time, especially if you are among the millions of people living in democratic societies who are concerned about where society and politics are headed. Please feel free to weigh in or share your reactions.

Noam Chomsky: The Death of the American University

“The university imposes costs on students and on faculty who are not only untenured but are maintained on a path that guarantees that they will have no security. All of this is perfectly natural within corporate business models. It’s harmful to education, but education is not their goal.”

Vox Populi

On hiring faculty off the tenure track

That’s part of the business model. It’s the same as hiring temps in industry or what they call “associates” at Walmart, employees that aren’t owed benefits. It’s a part of a corporate business model designed to reduce labor costs and to increase labor servility. When universities become corporatized, as has been happening quite systematically over the last generation as part of the general neoliberal assault on the population, their business model means that what matters is the bottom line.

The effective owners are the trustees (or the legislature, in the case of state universities), and they want to keep costs down and make sure that labor is docile and obedient. The way to do that is, essentially, temps. Just as the hiring of temps has gone way up in the neoliberal period, you’re getting the same phenomenon in the universities.

The idea is…

View original post 1,730 more words

The Best International Relations Books of 2013

As some of you may recall, I hold a B.A. in International Relations and Political Science, and remain very passionate about both subjects. That’s why I’m happy to share information on the best academic and nonfiction books published in 2013, courtesy of Foreign Affairs, one of the leading journals on the subject. 

An esteemed coterie of ten scholars were asked to pick their top three tomes for a variety of IR subjects, including law and politics, economics and the environment, military and science, and Africa, to name a few. Browse through the list and see if anything piques your interest. Sadly, I’ve only read or owned a handful of what’s listed, so I look forward to expanding my collection and seeing if these merit their selection. 

If you’re familiar with any of the books listed, please feel free to share your thoughts. Happy reading fellow IR nerds! 

The Scientist to Rule Them All

Obviously, choosing the best scientist period is a futile effort, given the vast variety of scientific disciplines. But even identifying the best scientist within a given field of study can be tricky — how exactly do you determine it? According to a recent report in Natureresearchers at Indiana University Bloomington think they’ve discovered the best way to answer this question:

Their provisional (and constantly updated) ranking of nearly 35,000 researchers relies on queries made through Google Scholar to normalize the popular metric known as the h-index (a scientist with an h-index of 20 has published at least 20 papers with at least 20 citations each, so the measure takes into account quantity and popularity of research).

Through this methodology, they uncovered the following:

It found that as of 5 November, the most influential scholar was Karl Marx in history, ahead of Sigmund Freud in psychology. Number three was Edward Witten, a physicist at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, New Jersey.

You can visit the team’s website at Scholarometer to see the rest of the results. Needless to say, the conclusions have been disputed; aside from questioning the very idea that there is a dominant scientific figure, there’s also the question of whether even this method is effective:

Scholarometer’s success depends on the accuracy of Google Scholar, which is far from comprehensive or consistent. “A user-based tool like Scholarometer can hardly deliver consistent results for fair comparison and field-normalization,” says Werner Marx, who studies scholarly metrics at the Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research in Stuttgart, Germany. And the corrected h-index is only one measurement. Experts recommend using a basket of metrics, together with peer-reviewed opinions, to compare researchers.

“I tend not to put a whole lot of weight on these numbers and I’ve never heard of the h-index,” says James Ihle, a biochemist at St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital in Memphis, Tennessee — who at one stage placed fourth overall in the Scholarometer ranking. If you, as an evaluator, have to rely solely on corrected h-indices to compare academics, says Ihle, “then you’re dumb, and you don’t understand what you are doing”.
What are your thoughts on the matter?

 

The 10 Most Overlooked But Important Moments in History

The list, compiled for the BBC by its readers, has some some pretty obscure and interesting selections, even for a self-styled history buff like me. They are the following:

  1. The discovery of industrial ammonia
  2. The Rebellion of Andreas Hofer
  3. Al-Hazen’s Work on Optics
  4. The Danube Script
  5. Double-Entry Bookkeeping
  6. The Seven Years’ War
  7. The Kingdom of Axum
  8. The Law Code of Hammurabi
  9. Rise of the Khmer Empire (and its building of the Angkor War)
  10. The Life of Simon Bolivar

Each of these things played a vital role in shaping the course of human history. Yet how many of them are even remotely known, let alone discussed? What do you guys thing? What are some things you’d add to the list?

What America Can Learn From Finland’s Education System

Yet again, there’s more attention heaped upon Finland’s impressive primary education system, this time from The Atlantic, which explores what factors makes the Nordic country so successful in educating its youth (and whether it’s applicable here).

The answers Finland provides seem to run counter to just about everything America’s school reformers are trying to do.

For starters, Finland has no standardized tests. The only exception is what’s called the National Matriculation Exam, which everyone takes at the end of a voluntary upper-secondary school, roughly the equivalent of American high school.

Instead, the public school system’s teachers are trained to assess children in classrooms using independent tests they create themselves. All children receive a report card at the end of each semester, but these reports are based on individualized grading by each teacher. Periodically, the Ministry of Education tracks national progress by testing a few sample groups across a range of different schools.

As for accountability of teachers and administrators, Sahlberg shrugs. “There’s no word for accountability in Finnish,” he later told an audience at the Teachers College of Columbia University. “Accountability is something that is left when responsibility has been subtracted.”

For Sahlberg what matters is that in Finland all teachers and administrators are given prestige, decent pay, and a lot of responsibility. A master’s degree is required to enter the profession, and teacher training programs are among the most selective professional schools in the country. If a teacher is bad, it is the principal’s responsibility to notice and deal with it.

And while Americans love to talk about competition, Sahlberg points out that nothing makes Finns more uncomfortable. In his book Sahlberg quotes a line from Finnish writer named Samuli Paronen: “Real winners do not compete.” It’s hard to think of a more un-American idea, but when it comes to education, Finland’s success shows that the Finnish attitude might have merits. There are no lists of best schools or teachers in Finland. The main driver of education policy is not competition between teachers and between schools, but cooperation.

Finally, in Finland, school choice is noticeably not a priority, nor is engaging the private sector at all. Which brings us back to the silence after Sahlberg’s comment at the Dwight School that schools like Dwight don’t exist in Finland.

“Here in America,” Sahlberg said at the Teachers College, “parents can choose to take their kids to private schools. It’s the same idea of a marketplace that applies to, say, shops. Schools are a shop and parents can buy what ever they want. In Finland parents can also choose. But the options are all the same.”

Herein lay the real shocker. As Sahlberg continued, his core message emerged, whether or not anyone in his American audience heard it.

Decades ago, when the Finnish school system was badly in need of reform, the goal of the program that Finland instituted, resulting in so much success today, was never excellence. It was equity.

* * *

Since the 1980s, the main driver of Finnish education policy has been the idea that every child should have exactly the same opportunity to learn, regardless of family background, income, or geographic location. Education has been seen first and foremost not as a way to produce star performers, but as an instrument to even out social inequality.

In the Finnish view, as Sahlberg describes it, this means that schools should be healthy, safe environments for children. This starts with the basics. Finland offers all pupils free school meals, easy access to health care, psychological counseling, and individualized student guidance.

In fact, since academic excellence wasn’t a particular priority on the Finnish to-do list, when Finland’s students scored so high on the first PISA survey in 2001, many Finns thought the results must be a mistake. But subsequent PISA tests confirmed that Finland — unlike, say, very similar countries such as Norway — was producing academic excellence through its particular policy focus on equity.

That this point is almost always ignored or brushed aside in the U.S. seems especially poignant at the moment, after the financial crisis and Occupy Wall Street movement have brought the problems of inequality in America into such sharp focus. The chasm between those who can afford $35,000 in tuition per child per year — or even just the price of a house in a good public school district — and the other “99 percent” is painfully plain to see.

The question is, can this system be replicated to any degree in the United States, or is it too unique to Finland’s culture and society?

Samuel Abrams, a visiting scholar at Columbia University’s Teachers College, has addressed the effects of size and homogeneity on a nation’s education performance by comparing Finland with another Nordic country: Norway. Like Finland, Norway is small and not especially diverse overall, but unlike Finland it has taken an approach to education that is more American than Finnish. The result? Mediocre performance in the PISA survey. Educational policy, Abrams suggests, is probably more important to the success of a country’s school system than the nation’s size or ethnic makeup.

Indeed, Finland’s population of 5.4 million can be compared to many an American state — after all, most American education is managed at the state level. According to the Migration Policy Institute, a research organization in Washington, there were 18 states in the U.S. in 2010 with an identical or significantly smaller percentage of foreign-born residents than Finland.

What’s more, despite their many differences, Finland and the U.S. have an educational goal in common. When Finnish policymakers decided to reform the country’s education system in the 1970s, they did so because they realized that to be competitive, Finland couldn’t rely on manufacturing or its scant natural resources and instead had to invest in a knowledge-based economy.