From The Straits Times:
Climate change could drive up to a sixth of animals and plants on Earth to extinction unless governments cut rising greenhouse gas emissions, according to a US study published on Thursday.
Species in South America, Australia and New Zealand are most at risk, since many live in small areas or cannot easily move away to adapt to heatwaves, droughts, floods or rising seas, said the report in the journal Science.
The study averaged out 131 previous studies of climate change, whose projections of the number of species that could be lost to climate change ranged from zero to 54 per cent of species worldwide – too wide to be useful in designing conservation policies.
Overall, it found that one in six species could be driven to extinction if greenhouse gas emissions are unchecked and temperatures rise by 4.3 deg C above pre-industrial times by 2100, in line with one scenario from the UN Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC).
As another study reported in the The Washington Post found, large herbivores, which remain mostly in Africa, are especially vulnerable:
Large herbivores — elephants, hippos, rhinos and gorillas among them — are vanishing from the globe at a startling rate, with some 60 percent threatened with extinction, a team of scientists reports.
The situation is so dire, according to a new study, that it threatens an “empty landscape” in some ecosystems “across much of the planet Earth”. The authors were clear: This is a big problem — and it’s a problem with us, not them.
“Growing human populations, unsustainable hunting, high densities of livestock, and habitat loss have devastating consequences for large, long-lived, slow-breeding, and, therefore, vulnerable herbivore species”, reads “Collapse of the world’s largest herbivores” in Science Advances, a publication of the American Association for the Advancement of Science…
…Between 2002 and 2011 alone, the number of forest elephants in central Africa declined by 62 percent. Some 100,000 African elephants were poached between 2010 and 2012. And the western black rhinoceros in Africa was declared extinct in 2011.
“This slaughter is driven by the high retail price of rhinoceros horn, which exceeds, per unit weight, that of gold, diamonds, or cocaine”, according to the study.
Vox.com provides a chilling picture at what the world will look like one out of six species gone:
“This paper is only about extinction risk, which is the most extreme of the biotic risks of climate change,” he says. “But that’s also just the tip of the iceberg. We’re also seeing substantial changes in abundances and ranges. So even if we didn’t have a single extinction, we’d be looking at a substantial reorganization of biodiversity around the world. And that will have many effects, some detrimental to other species and human interests.”
Even so, extinction tends to grab the most attention — and often for good reason. “The world is more colorful place with this diversity of species,” he says. “And it’s hard to imagine a world where we’ve lost a significant portion of these species. You think about losing one in six species. It’s like telling an artist they can no longer paint in one color.”
Not to mention the practical everyday impacts. “Global biodiversity is really the foundation of our natural economy, our food security, and our health,” he adds. “These are species that are integrally interwoven into our economic and personal life. When you get to these high extinction risks, you’re talking about a dramatic effect on world.”