The Azerbaijan Democratic Republic

The Azerbaijan Democratic Republic (ADR) is barely a footnote in human history: it lasted only two years, from 1918 to 1920, as one of many short-lived states to emerge during the tumultuous Russian Civil War.

800px-Azerbaijan_Democratic_Republic_1918_20

Yet for its brief existence, it was a trailblazer: it was the first Muslim country to establish a democratic republic, with representation of all ethnic and religious minorities; power was vested in a universally elected parliament, and its founding document guaranteed “all its citizens within its borders full civil and political rights, regardless of ethnic origin, religion, class, profession, or sex.” The ADR was also among the first countries in the world, and the very first majority-Muslim nation, to grant women equal political rights with men—before even the U.S. and much of Western Europe.

There is no telling whether this ground-breaking effort would have lasted, as the country was invaded and annexed by the Soviets around its second anniversary of independence. (Around the same time, two other Muslim democratic republics emerged from the fallen Russian Empire: the Crimean People’s Republic and the Idel-Ural Republic, but these lasted only a few weeks.)

Source: Russian Azerbaijan, 1905-1920: The Shaping of a National Identity in a Muslim Community 

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