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Chart: A ranking of European countries by how much couples argue over household chores

Eupraxsophy:

Interesting research. I wonder what, if anything, does this say about sociocultural attitudes towards gender roles, relationships, romantic expectations, or other factors that may contribute to conflict between partners. I’d be curious to see research like this involving other countries across the world.

Originally posted on Quartz:

Marital bickering is not just for married couples. If you’re an unmarried cohabiting couple in Europe, you’re actually more likely to argue about whose turn it is to clean the toilet than a married couple would, according to a new report. But you may be less likely to argue over paying the gas bill than a wedlocked duo.

The report, published in the journal Demographic Research, surveyed cohabiting and married heterosexual couples in 22 European countries and determined how much they each argue about specific issues. Couples living together are more likely to argue over housework than married couples, while married couples were more likely to disagree over paid work and money, the researchers found.

The report also exposed differences in the overall rate of couples arguing from country to country. Couples in Greece, for example, are living the good life; they’re the least likely to squabble about household work divisions, paid work and money. Norway and Finland are…

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Hats From Around The World

Since I am busy and not in the mood to write, today’s post will be light but fun — here are eighty hats from around the world courtesy of DesignTaxi.com, which in turn pulled them from travel website Venere.

In addition to the iconic hats we all know and love — the French beret, Mexican sombrero, and so on – there are some pretty interesting and little-known varieties (especially from Africa and South Africa). Fellow artists and writers might benefit from these as a point of reference.

Hats Around The World I Hats Around The World II Hats Around The World III Hats Around The World IV

I think you can learn quite a bit from a culture by looking at its attire — what sort of inferences can you make from these samples?

Street Life Through Puddles

One of the great things about art is its ability to unlock new perspectives and angles that can change our own everyday perceptions and thoughts. Such has been the effect on me of Un Regard,” a photographic series by Congolese painter-turned-photographer Kiripi Katembo Siku.

His artwork captures daily life in the bustling city of Kinshasa, the capital of the Democratic Republic of Congo, as reflected in puddles. As you would imagine, this adds a pretty interesting effect to each photo.

Here are some photos courtesy of HuffPo, where I first stumbled upon this unique series.

2014-07-11-Rester.jpg

2014-07-11-Subir.jpg

2014-07-11-Survivre.jpg

2014-07-11-Avancer.jpg

2014-07-11-Devenir.jpg

2014-07-11-Errer.jpg

2014-07-11-Evolution.jpg

A pretty neat way to capture the everyday world around us. It kind of makes me want to get a closer look at puddles from now on! What do you think?

 

Global Spotlight: The Nihang Sikhs

Members of the Nihang, a military order in the Sikh religion also known as the Akali (The Eternal) and the Akal Sena (The Army of the Eternal). Renowned for their strict discipline, courage, and martial skill, the Nihang are named after a Persian mythical sea creature to which their fighting prowess was compared (historians of the Mughal Empire likened their ferocity to that of crocodiles).

The Nihang are accorded considerable respect and affection among Sikhs worldwide, for although their role is primarily ceremonial, they are bound to defend their community in times of war. During the festival of Hola Mohalla (which usually occurs in March), thousands of Nihang gather at Anandpur, a holy city of the Sikhs, where they display their famous martial skills (known collectively as gatka).

As you may have noticed, the Nihang are best recognized by their large and often elaborate turbans. They are often reinforced with steel and fitted with various weapons, including a trident (for stabbing in close-quarters), bagh naka (claw-like weapons) and one or more chakram (steel throwing weapons).

I love the character, color, and personality in these photos (the first of which was taken by Mark Hartman but the others whose . Many thanks to my friend and colleague Richard for first sharing the first photo with me, and thus piquing my interest to learn more about this fascinating group and faith.

National Pride Around The World

With the rise of the nation state — whose conceptual origin is disputed but typically traced back to the Treaty of Westphalia in the 17th century – has emerged the idea of patriotism and pride in one’s civic and national identity — equally contentious and amorphous concepts.

As a life-long American, I am intimately aware of the impact, prevalence, and subsequent controversy of patriotism — indeed, national pride is seen as one of the definitive elements of American identity, coinciding with and emerging from notions such as American exceptionalism and the American dream.

But how deeply is patriotism ingrained in the  U.S. collective consciousness, especially nowadays, amid so much declinism and cynicism about our future? What of the effects of globalization on our and other nations’ sense of national belonging: in an increasingly globalized world — with so many people traveling and living abroad, exchanging one another’s cultures, and forging deep emotional and social ties across borders — how influential is the nation state on our psyches?

Well, data from the 2010-2014 World Values Survey (which is still being completed) offer some interesting insight on how citizens of select countries feel about living there. Citizens in 52 participating countries were asked the following: “How proud are you to be [insert nationality]” to which they could select “Very Proud”, “Quite Proud”, “Not Very Proud”, “Not at All Proud”, or “Unsure”.

Here are the maps courtesy of Vox.com.

Note that this only signifies people who selected the highest option of “very proud”. The total percentage of citizens who are proud of their country is much higher when you add the follow data showing those who are “quite proud” (the second highest option, although it does not sound that much lower than “very”).

Moreover, a redditor named DMan9797 put together the following custom chart based on the total responses, which I feel does a better job of giving us the bigger picture globally and for each individual country (click the image to see it bigger).

So in total, there are 48 out of 52 participating countries in which 70 percent of respondents are proud or very proud to be a part of; the four notable exceptions are Japan, Germany, Ukraine, and Taiwan (although Russia, Estonia, and Belarus were not that far off). The Vox articles offers some interesting  explanations as to why these countries stand out:

For Germany and Japan, it suggests that the post-World War II hangups about nationalism may have not quite gone away. Since their defeats, both countries have developed a much more complicated relationship with national pride — in some ways, German and Japanese nationalism run amok were responsible for the whole thing. This sense of national guilt, or at least a wariness of too much national pride, might be making it harder for German and Japanese folk to feel immense amounts of national pride.

In Ukraine, the issue may be the country’s ethno-linguistic divides. As many know by now, eastern Ukrainians and Crimeans tend to be more sympathetic to Russia than the rest of Ukraine. That divide was one of the underlying causes of the current crisis between Ukraine and Russia. So it’s likely that eastern Ukrainians and Crimeans, many of whom were less than thrilled about being Ukrainian even when the survey began in 2010, reported abnormally low levels of Ukrainian pride. Estonia’s results may support that theory as well: the Baltic country just barely dodged the sub-70 percent prideful club, and it has a significant ethnic Russian minority.

Then there’s Taiwan, whose results are almost certainly about tension with mainland China. 20 percent of Taiwanese outright favor reunification with China, and 43.5 percent of Taiwanese also identify as Chinese (“Zhongguo ren,” which could mean Taiwanese, mainland Chinese, or both). This complicated relationship with the People’s Republic probably explains why Taiwanese people aren’t quite as proud of their country as other peoples are.

Personally, I think these explanations make sense, although it is interesting to note that Germany’s national pride has presumably been growing in light of the country’s renowned economic performance and subsequent international clout. It may be that Germans are simply sheepish about being more explicit in their patriotism.

In any case, it is interesting to see such a mixed bag of countries at the top: Qatar, Ghana, Ecuador, Uzbekistan, Trinidad and Tobago, and the Philippines could not be any more different from each other. Whether a country is authoritarian or democratic, rich or poor, or developed or underdeveloped doesn’t seem to impact peoples’ sense of national pride; nor are certain linguistic, ethnic, or religious compositions more or less likely to feel strong national pride.

All this probably speaks to the complex factors that go into one’s sense of belonging to a nation and feeling proud of it. Plenty of poorly governed and impoverished nations are nonetheless rich in culture, history, or national achievement (Qatar is an outsized player in the Middle-East affairs, Ghana paved the way for African independence movements, etc).

Conversely, having a high quality of life and an enviable socioeconomic system, even in combination with a rich culture and much accomplishment, doesn’t mean everyone will feel a strong sense of national identity or pride — Germany and Japan can speak to that, albeit for reasons unique to themselves.

Of course, every country — like every individual — has its own unique characteristics, history, social dynamics, and other factors that explain its standing among its own citizens and the world at large. It goes to show just how complicated the concepts of nation and state are, let alone the political and psychological relationship with these entities and ideas.

What are your thoughts?

 

The Treasure Voyages

Today marks the anniversary of the start of the Treasure Voyages, an incredible series of diplomatic and commercial expeditions undertaken by the Ming Dynasty during the 15th century that reached Southeast Asia, the Indian Subcontinent, the Middle-East, and East Africa. The scale, scope, and technical sophistication of this fleet — which involved over 27,000 personnel — was unprecedented in known history, and remained so for centuries.

The outward route of the fleet during the seventh and final voyage. Source: Wikipedia

The ships involved were marvels of engineering, reflecting the sheer technological might of what was then the world’s most advanced and powerful civilizations. See how the Treasure Voyages’ flagship compares to that of Columbus’ ship, St. Maria, used just decades later:

Unfortunately, I do not have the time to devote myself to writing more about this fascinating event or time period. Instead, I invite you to check out this detailed but succinct blog post about it, or listen to this great 45-minute BBC Radio post. The hyperlink to Wikipedia in the first sentence offers an extensive guide as well (it seems to be one of the better written and cited articles on the website).

Liquor Consumption By Country

I’m a sucker for charts, graphs, and maps, especially those that explore global trends and attitudes — no matter how seemingly trivial or mundane. Often times you learn some pretty surprising things about other cultures and societies. For example, take a look at who the world’s heaviest liquor drinkers are, courtesy of a chart from Quartz (a great source for such infographics).

Note that the chart is also measuring the change in average consumption over the span of a decade, beginning in 2000. Some countries remain largely flat in their liquor consumption (such as Austria, Belgium, and Muslim-majority countries like Egypt and Indonesia) while others have grown (the U.S. and especially the Philippines) and still others have declined (Brazil, Ukraine, and Greece).

So I know what many of you must be thinking: how are South Koreans, not exactly well-known for their hard-drinking, ranking so incredibly high? We’re talking 13.7 shots of liquor per week on average, followed by Russians and Filipinos at less than half that amount (6.3 and 5.4 shots per week, respectively). Well, the Quartz piece offers a simple explanation:

South Korea’s unparalleled liquor consumption is almost entirely due to the country’s love for a certain fermented rice spirit called Soju. The South Korean liquor accounts for 97 percent of the country’s spirits market.

Like most countries where alcohol consumption is high, South Korea is combating the subsequent social and public health consequences, an approach that accounts for the decline or stagnation of liquor consumption in famously hard-drinking countries like Russia, Ukraine, and the U.K. Of course, when the particular spirit of choice is so culturally and historically ingrained, it can be a pretty difficult battle.

 

Jean-Baptiste Belley

Belley, with the bust of the philosophe Raynal, by Girodet

Jean-Baptiste Belley, also known as Mars, was a native of Senegal and former slave from Saint-Domingue (modern Haiti) who during the French Revolution became a member of the National Convention and the Council of Five Hundred, France’s legislative chambers.

After buying his freedom and serving as a captain of the colonial infantry, he was elected to the Convention in 1793 during the height of the revolution. He was perhaps the first African and first former slave to be elected to a legislative body in any Western country. He presided over the Convention’s unanimous abolition of slavery and served as an active supporter of the rights of Africans in the French Republic.

Although he was recognized as a full citizen of the Republic, Belley had to struggle against institutional racism. He remained steadfast in helping the new country stay true to its formal claim of equality and liberty until losing his seat in 1797.

In the above painting by Girodet, he stands with the bust of Guillaume Thomas Raynal, a prominent Enlightenment thinker and abolitionist. His stylish relaxed pose was a popular way of portraying figures of the revolution. Many art critics also see in the painting the idea of the noble savage.

Theo van Gogh

Theo van GoghTheodorus “Theo” van Gogh was an art dealer and younger brother of Vincent van Gogh. Though overshadowed by his more famous sibling, it was Theo’s unfailing financial and emotional support that allowed Vincent to devote himself entirely to his world-famous art.

Not only did Theo unconditionally provide Vincent with painting supplies and money for the rest of his life, but gave him unwavering emotional support and love. Despite being far more successful than Vincent by societal standards – he was a respected art dealer, married, financially successful – Theo admired his elder brother his entire life.

It was Theo who urged his brother to continue his work and who constantly praised him, expressing deep and abiding respect for a man often wracked with self-loathing and frustration. Theo was one of the few people that Vincent could talk to and confide in, and he served as a constant source of support during Vincent’s darkest times.

Subsequently, the brothers maintained an intensive correspondence – of the 800 letters Vincent wrote during his lifetime, around 75 percent were to Theo, including his first and last. Though communication was difficult given Vincent’s poor health and financial circumstances, Theo continued to write letters with much enthusiasm.

The majority of Theo’s letters and communications with Vincent are filled with praise and encouragement, as well as concerns about his mental health. In turn, Vincent would send Theo sketches and ideas for paintings – in addition to various rants and trivialities – that Theo would take in with the utmost delight and eagerness.

Theo Portrait

A portrait of Theo done by Vincent that was originally thought to have been a self-portrait. Its true subject was revealed only in 2011.

It should be noted that these letters are one of the main and only sources of information about Vincent’s life, providing many detailed accounts of Vincent’s circumstances, thoughts, feelings, and the like. It is largely thanks to Theo and his wife that these letters are available today, having been collected and published in a compilation, The Letters of Vincent van Gogh (unfortunately, few of Theo’s letters survive as Vincent failed to keep them).

In 1886, Theo invited Vincent to come and live with him in Paris, introducing him to such notable contemporaries as Paul Gauguin, Paul Cézanne, Henri Rousseau, and others. Allegedly, he tried to use his connections as an art dealer to bring attention to Vincent’s work, but evidently none of his paintings were ever sold.

It goes without saying that Vincent’s death hit his brother hard. Already suffering from dementia paralytica, a syphilitic infection of the brain, Theo died just six months after his older brother, at age 33. The cause of death included “sadness” from grief as a factor. He was survived by his wife Joanna and his only son, Vincent Wilhelm.

It should also be noted that Theo’s work as an art dealer played a vital role in bringing attention to contemporary Dutch and French artists and movements. For example, Theo was instrumental in promoting the popularity of Impressionist artists such as Claude Monet and Edgar Degas, persuading his employers, Goupil & Cie, to exhibit and buy their works.

In 1914, Theo’s body was exhumed and reburied with his brother at Auvers-sur-Oise in Paris, where it can still be seen today.

Van Gogh Brothers

The Lives of Average Ancient Egyptians

Nearly all historical studies tend to focus on major figures — monarchs, chiefs, military leaders, and revolutionaries — the folks who most stood out in terms of their pivotal roles, monuments, or outsized characters. But clearly, these individuals are an exceedingly small minority in the societies they lived in, and hardly representative of the typical person’s lifestyle, beliefs, routines, etc. We can only glean so much from the exceptional and often disconnected upper-classes that are often disproportionately represented.

Moreover, even the greatest and most exemplary leaders could only accomplish so much without the thousands (if not millions) of faceless and nameless people that helped make it happen. From the peasants and laborers that helped build empires, to the grunts that executed successful conquests and campaigns, these are the neglected masses that deserve some attention, if only to know: how did average joes and janes like us get by day-to-day?

With respect to Ancient Egypt at least — one of the world’s most spectacular and captivating civilizations — there is thankfully a great two-part series that sheds some light on how members of this advanced society got by. It is of course courtesy of the esteemed BBC.   Check out the videos below, as they are well worth your time.

Who knew that Egyptian courtship was relatively so liberal? Or that Egyptian homes were advanced enough to feature proto-fridges and ovens? Or that the Egyptians used moldy bread to successfully treat infection, unknowingly realizing the benefits of penicillin before we even knew such microorganisms existed. The familiarity and humanity of these thousands-year old people is absolutely awe-inspiring…to me at least.

Feel free to share your own thoughts and reactions.